Rosenberg, Tsien, Whalley, and Devinsky (2015) have recently reviewed the role of cannabinoids in epilepsy; highlighting proconvulsive effects (e.g., THC) and anticonvulsive effects (e.g., cannabidiol). The mechanisms of action of cannabidiol in epilepsy have also been recently reviewed (Reddy & Golub, 2016). Much work with SCB in epilepsy has focused on WIN55,212-2. WIN55,212-22 potentiated the effects of four antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, and valproate) in mice (Luszczki et al., 2011). However, the authors also caution that impairment of motor coordination, long-term memory, and a reduction of skeletal muscular strength was also seen with these combination treatments. The same group found WIN 55,212-2 in combination with lamotrigine, pregabalin, and topiramate and second- and third-generation anticonvulsants gabapentin, levetiracetam but not lacosamide, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin, and tiagabine to potentiate anticonvulsant effects in mice (Florek-Luszczki et al., 2015; Luszczki, Wlaz, Karwan, Florek-Luszczki, & Czuczwar, 2013).
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CBD oil contains CBD (and often other active compounds) in a carrier oil. There are a number of forms of CBD oil, including softgel capsules, tinctures, and under-the-tongue sprays. Some forms of CBD oil can also be applied directly to the skin, in the form of products like creams and salves. The concentration of CBD varies from product to product.

I have a dog that was diagnosed with bone cancer. I wasn't going to put an old dog through amputation and chemo, so I opted for comfort care, with the caution from the vet that pain meds would have to be increased until they no longer were able to keep the pain in control and he would have to be euthanized soon. At the recommendation of a friend that I try adding the Hemp Oil to his regimen to see if it helped. Within a day, I started seeing a difference in his behavior, with more alertness and improved movement. He has now been taking one tsp morning and evening and I have actually been able to reduce some of his prescription meds. He is eating well and puttering around with no evidence of pain. The vet expected him to be unable to be kept comfortable and need to be euthanized by now, but the dog didn't get the memo. I expect that the cancer will catch up with him at some point, but he is still enjoying life now and we will keep going until he tells me otherwise. I have told friends about his obvious improvement, and they opted to try it for themselves for various chronic pain conditions that have required heavy-duty prescription pain killers (fentanyl, oxycontin, Ambien) to control. In every incidence, they report significant relief and have been able to reduce or eliminate the prescription drugs. People can sometimes convince themselves something is working by the power of their expectation, even when it isn't (placebo effect), but animals aren't so easily fooled. My only concern is that in the few months I have been purchasing this product the price increased substantially, although it is still reasonable. I just hope it doesn't become so popular that it becomes out of reach for those of us with modest incomes.
UPDATE! I ordered this product again because the first bottle worked magnificently however upon receiving the new bottle, I live in Florida and noticed that the bottle was overwhelmingly warm when received... so I put it in the refrigerator and waited for my other bottle to finish to open this one. I have now ingested this on two separate occasions and have become violently ill upon consumption. This product is not consistent, be extremely cautious when buying and using this product definitely test it to make sure it's not rancid before you add it to your meals. I am extremely upset about this and wish the company would contact me..
The United States Federal Government does not define ‘hemp’ exactly, but they do define ‘industrial hemp’ to be any part of a cannabis plant, whether growing or not, that is used solely for industrial purposes (fiber and seed) with a THC concentration of no more than 0.3 percent when dried. In contrast, Hemp.com defines it as “the fiber and seed part of the Cannabis Sativa L. plant, opposed to the flower part of the plant which is ‘legally considered’ marijuana.”
Synthetic CB1/CB2 receptor agonists are associated with a reduction of infarct size and hypothermia in animal models. CB1 receptor antagonists, however, have also shown a reduction of infarct size. The conflicting results prove the complexity of the ECS; others hypothesize that the CB receptor inhibitors may be targeting nonCB receptors but still producing neuroprotective effects. Studies are also investigating modulation of CB1/CB2 receptor activation with promising results on reducing infarct size with stimulation of CB2 and inhibition of CB1 [12]. CB may also play a beneficial role in post-stroke rehabilitation with studies reporting CB1 and CB2 receptor expression in neural stem and progenitor cells [12].

The active ingredient in marijuana is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol is an extract of THC that can be measured along with THC in laboratory research settings. The effects of acute exposure of marijuana on sleep are similar to some hypnotics because they can induce sleep (Hollister, 2001), slightly decrease REM sleep (Pivik et al., 1972), and adversely affect sleep upon withdrawal (Wiesbeck et al., 1996). Doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg THC prior to sleep have decreased SOL after subjects reported achieving a “high” subjectively (Cousens and Dimascio, 1973). There is an initial increase in S4 sleep with THC (Pivik et al., 1972; Feinberg et al., 1975, 1976), but more recent studies have found that 15 mg THC and 5 mg cannabidiol before bed decreased S3 sleep (Nicholson et al., 2004). Prolonged ROL (Nicholson et al., 2004), reduced eye movements, and reduced REM sleep duration have also been noted (Pivik et al., 1972).
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