Sleep disturbance is a common side-effect of marijuana withdrawal. Among 1735 frequent users of marijuana (>21 occasions in a single year), 235 (13.5%) reported difficulty sleeping during withdrawal (Wiesbeck et al., 1996). Difficulty falling asleep and decreased SWS% have been documented during the first two nights (Freemon, 1982) of withdrawal. While acute exposure to low doses (2 mg) of THC decreases REM sleep (Pivik et al., 1972), there is no REM sleep rebound during the withdrawal period (Freemon, 1974). Higher doses (70–210 mg), on the other hand, resulted in REM sleep rebound during withdrawal (Feinberg et al., 1976). Daytime consequences are reported following higher doses of THC, including mild hangovers (Cousens and Dimascio, 1973), increased sleepiness, mood changes, and impaired memory (Nicholson et al., 2004). Objective methods of assessing sleepiness, such as the MSLT, have not been utilized to assess daytime consequences of THC.
To date, 23 states and the District of Columbia have passed laws allowing marijuana to be used for a variety of medical conditions. Fifteen additional states have enacted laws intended to allow access to CBD oil and/or high-CBD strains of marijuana. Interest in the potential therapeutic effects of CBD has been growing rapidly, partially in response to media attention surrounding the use of CBD oil in young children with intractable seizure disorders including Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. While there are promising preliminary data, the scientific literature is currently insufficient to either prove or disprove the efficacy and safety of CBD in patients with epilepsy.i and further clinical evaluation is warranted. In addition to epilepsy, the therapeutic potential of CBD is currently being explored for a number of indications including anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, schizophrenia, cancer, pain, inflammatory diseases and others. My testimony will provide an overview of what the science tells us about the therapeutic potential of CBD and of the ongoing research supported by NIH in this area.
More recently, seizure-like activity has been seen following SCB use. Schep, Slaughter, Hudson, Place, and Watts (2015) described a 23-year-old male, with a history of daily SCB misuse, who had smoked a SCB (K2) and 6 h later appeared to exhibit generalized tonic–clonic seizures. Blood analysis revealed that the patient had ingested SCB BB-22, AM2233, PB-22, 5F-PB-22, and JWH-122.
Targeting the eCB system through the use of the commercially available oromucosal spray Sativex, a combination of the phytocannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has already proved beneficial for the treatment of neuropathic pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis (Nurmikko et al., 2007; Notcutt et al., 2012). Furthermore, in a number of clinical trials modulation of the eCB system has improved behavioral symptoms in AD patients. In patients diagnosed with probable AD, a twice daily dose of 2.5 mg dronabinol, a phytocannabinoid derived from THC, was shown to reduce weight loss and improve disturbed behavior with minimal side effects of euphoria, drowsiness, and tiredness (Volicer et al., 1997). A more recent study has shown that in patients with late-stage AD, a single daily 2.5 mg dose of dronabinol improved nocturnal aggression and agitation with no adverse side effects (Walther et al., 2006). A single case study has also reported a reduction in the severity of agitation and resistiveness in a patient with mild AD through the use of nabilone, a CB1 receptor agonist (Passmore, 2008). Furthermore, ongoing placebo-controlled double-blind phase II clinical trials are being carried out on the safety and efficacy of Namisol, an oral tablet containing THC, in patients suffering from AD and vascular dementia. Measurable outcomes from these two studies include any alteration in neuropsychiatric symptoms, agitation, balance and mobility, pain, quality of life, and episodic memory (Rikkert, 2014a,b). To date, no clinical studies have been carried out on the effectiveness of these drugs on abrogating neurodegenerative processes in AD. There is, however, a wealth of preclinical data outlining the beneficial effects of cannabinoid treatment on neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration that may be of relevance to AD.
exhaustion and pain that kept her on the couch much of the day. The 58-year-old Seattle speech coach didn’t want to take opioid pain-killers, but Tylenol wasn’t helping enough. Roth was intrigued when women in her online chat group enthused about a cannabis-derived oil called cannabidiol (CBD) that they said relieved pain without making them high. So Roth, who hadn’t smoked weed since college but lived in a state where cannabis was legal, walked into a dispensary and bought a CBD tincture. “Within a few hours of placing the drops in my mouth, the malaise and achiness that had plagued me for weeks lifted and became much more manageable,” she says. She took the drops several times a day and in a few weeks was back to her regular life.
Epilepsy. A specific cannabidiol product (Epidiolex, GW Pharmaceuticals) has been shown to reduce seizures in adults and children with various conditions that are linked with seizures. This product is a prescription drug for treating seizures caused by Dravet syndrome or Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. It has also been shown to reduce seizures in people with tuberous sclerosis complex, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES). But it's not approved for treating these other types of seizures.
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Laboratory evidence indicated that cannabidiol may reduce THC clearance, increasing plasma concentrations which may raise THC availability to receptors and enhance its effect in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited receptors affecting the activity of voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels, which may affect neural activity. A small clinical trial reported that CBD partially inhibited the CYP2C-catalyzed hydroxylation of THC to 11-OH-THC.
The main points are to use cooking oils in moderation, Lichtenstein said. The government's U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend that Americans include a small amount of oils in their diets every day to supply essential fatty acids, because the body can't make these acids and thus must get them from food. There are two such fatty acids, and both are polyunsaturated fatty acids: linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.
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Canola oil is derived from rapeseed, a flowering plant, and contains a good amount of monounsaturated fats and a decent amount of polyunsaturated fats. Of all vegetable oils, canola oil tends to have the least amount of saturated fats. It has a high smoke point, which means it can be helpful for high-heat cooking. That being said, in the United States, canola oil tends to be highly processed, which means fewer nutrients overall. “Cold-pressed” or unprocessed canola oil is available, but it can be difficult to find.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Boggs, Douglas L; Nguyen, Jacques D; Morgenson, Daralyn; Taffe, Michael A; Ranganathan, Mohini (6 September 2017). "Clinical and preclinical evidence for functional interactions of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol". Neuropsychopharmacology. 43 (1): 142–154. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.209. ISSN 0893-133X. PMC 5719112. PMID 28875990.